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Grammar Police BadgeAlthough many novels today are written in the present tense, most novels are written in the past tense.  One common error that I find when critiquing manuscripts is the problem of verbs leaping from the past to the present. Tenses shouldn’t be mixed like alcohol in a punch bowl at a frat party. When writing a scene for a novel,  pick a verb tense and stick with it. Maintain verb tense consistency unless the timing of an action demands a change.

Past Tense and Present Tense

Consider the following sentences:

She threw the book across the room and screamed at the top of her lungs. (past tense)

She throws the book across the room and screams at the top of her lungs. (present tense)

A common mistake new writers make is to shift tenses in the middle of a sentence.


She threw the book across the room and screams at the top of her lungs.

The incorrectly written sentence above switches from past tense (threw) to present tense (screams). Readers get confused when writers jump from past tense to present tense within the same sentence. If the action took place in the past, both verbs must reflect this.


She threw the book across the room and screamed at the top of her lungs.

When Timing of an Action Demands a Tense Change

There are instances when the timing of an action demands a change in tense.


When he plays his violin tonight, everyone is amazed.

The word “when” in the first part of the sentence indicates that an action will take place in the future; therefore, the second part of the sentence needs to account for this.


When he plays his violin tonight, everyone will be amazed.

On the other hand, if the actions in both parts of a sentence happen together and the word “when” is used, the tense does not change.


When Sandy drinks milk products, she gets indigestion.

The sentence above means that Sandy sometimes drinks milk products. The action is habitual present. Since the second action happens when the first one does, the second verb (gets) remains in the present tense.

Consider the following sentence:

The boy threw egg at her car, after she had washed and waxed it earlier in the week.

The word “after” indicates that washing and waxing the car took place before the egg incident.  Since the egg incident happened in the past, the past perfect tense (had + verb) is used to indicate that an action took place further in the past.

Verb Tense Consistency Within Paragraphs

If a scene in a novel is written in one tense, that tense should be maintained from sentence to sentence within paragraphs unless there’s a time change.

Paragraph written in present tense:

Mary visits the zoo with her class. She gets lost and begins to cry. A clown carrying balloons walks by, but he pays no attention to her. Mary is scared. If she doesn’t find her class, the bus will leave without her. However, her teacher usually conducts a roll call on the bus.

All of the actions in the paragraph above take place in the present, except for this sentence:

If she doesn’t find her class, the bus will leave without her.

The sentence above shows what will happen in the future depending on whether Mary finds her class. The timing of the action demands a change in tense.

Paragraph rewritten in past tense:

Mary visited the zoo with her class. She got lost and began to cry. A clown carrying balloons walked by, but he paid no attention to her. Mary was scared. If she didn’t find her class, the bus would leave without her. However, her teacher usually conducted a roll call on the bus.

Notice that all the verbs switched to the past tense except in this sentence:

If she didn’t find her class, the bus would leave without her.

In the conditional sentence above, the timing of the action demands that the tense be changed in the independent clause of the sentence.

It’s important to maintain verb tense consistency to avoid confusing readers. Good editors will find and correct errors in verb tense consistency. Mistakes can slip into the manuscripts of the very best writers. That’s why it makes sense to find a good editor.

Until next time,

Write something you love! — Joanne

A Farewell to Adverbs?

February 26, 2017 — Leave a comment

how to use adverbsNew writers may wonder why they’re told not to use adverbs. Well, remember when Oprah had a show about the mad-cow scare and Texas cattle ranchers blamed her for beef prices dipping to a ten-year low? Celebrities like Oprah can sway public opinion. Likewise, in the writing world, people listen to Stephen King. In On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft, he writes:

I believe the road to hell is paved with adverbs, and I will shout it from the rooftops. To put it another way, they’re like dandelions. If you have one on your lawn, it looks pretty and unique. If you fail to root it out, however, you find five the next day… fifty the day after that… and then, my brothers and sisters, your lawn is totally, completely, and profligately covered with dandelions. By then you see them for the weeds they really are, but by then it’s—GASP!!—too late.

Many writers assume that adverbs are now a banned part of speech. I understand King’s frustration with adverbs. Inexperienced writers misuse them, and good writers overuse them. Some people drink too much coffee, but banning it isn’t the solution. Rather than abolishing adverbs, why not provide writers with better instruction on how to use them?

Avoid Redundant Adverbs

Adverbs shouldn’t be used unless they add meaning to a sentence. Consider the following examples:

“I am so tired,” she said sleepily.
“I am so tired.” She yawned and lumbered up the stairs.

“I could eat a horse,” she said hungrily.
“I could eat a horse.” She ransacked the cabinets and found a package of cookies.

“I’d like to throttle him,” she said angrily.
“I’d like to throttle him.” She stomped out of the room.

The adverbs in the first sentence of each example above (sleepily, hungrily, angrily) are redundant. Another problem is that the adverbs tell rather than show.  By revising these sentences, both problems are eliminated.

Similarly, the sentences below (before revision) use redundant adverb-verb pairings:

She finished her meal completely.
She finished her meal.

She whispered the poem into his ear softly.
She whispered the poem into his ear.

He shouted obscenities loudly as he drove past her house.
He shouted obscenities as he drove past her house.

I personally feel that he’s a jerk.
He’s a jerk.

Use Strong Verbs

Careless writers use adverbs to modify weak verbs. Opt for strong verbs. Consider the sentence pairs below:

He closed the door forcefully.
He slammed the door.

He stated vehemently that he didn’t cheat.
He swore he didn’t cheat.

He found the book extremely interesting.
The book enthralled him.

Most writers would agree that the second sentence in each pair of sentences is better.

Minimize Degree Adverbs and Adverbial Intensifiers

A degree adverb or adverbial intensifier is an adverb that describes the intensity of the quantifying pronoun, adjective, adverb, or verb adjacent to it. Some examples of intensifiers are: absolutely, completely, clearly, terribly, extremely, very, really, highly, immensely, nearly, virtually, fairly, pretty, rather, slightly, hardly, scarcely, almost, relatively, so, too, strongly, strenuously, fiercely, utterly, somewhat, literally, only, totally, truly, madly, and deeply. Sometimes intensifiers can be eliminated without diminishing the meaning of a sentence.  For example:

He was really clever.
He was brilliant.

She was very afraid.
She was terrified.

The music was extremely loud.
The music was deafening.

How to Use Adverbs

There are times when using an adverb is expedient. For example:

Use adverbs judiciously.

The sentence above is clear and simple. Is it possible to write the same thought without using an adverb? Sure, but I know I couldn’t do it with three words.

Adverbs are also useful when they suggest something unusual. For example:

The crowd exited silently.

The nun licked her spoon seductively.

Most of the time crowds are noisy. Nuns typically don’t behave in an overtly sexual manner. Readers notice when adverbs describe something unexpected.

Before joining the movement to abolish all adverbs, remember the immortal words of Rhett Butler to Scarlett O’Hara in Gone with the Wind:

Frankly, my dear, I don’t give a damn.

Who would remove “frankly” from that quote? Not me.

Until next time,

Write something you love! — Joanne

Grammar Police BadgeWhen critiquing the work of other writers, one of the most common mistakes I find is the use of a plural pronoun to refer to a singular antecedent. I’m indebted to one of my high school English teachers (thank-you, Mrs. K.) for taking the time to teach how to use pronouns. Here is one of the rules that Mrs. K. taught:

A singular pronoun must refer to a singular antecedent; a plural pronoun must refer to a plural antecedent.


Mr. Brown (antecedent) reported that his (pronoun) chicken was stolen.

Mr. and Mrs. Brown (antecedents) reported that their (pronoun) chicken was stolen.

Can you spot the error in the sentence below?

If the chicken thief is caught, they will go to jail.

In the sentence above, chicken thief is a singular antecedent. The pronoun they is plural. So many writers use they to refer to a singular antecedent. The rule states that a plural pronoun must refer to a plural antecedent.

Here is one way to correct the sentence:

If the chicken thief is caught, he will go to jail.

The singular pronoun he refers to the singular antecedent chicken thief. The rule states that a singular pronoun must refer to a singular antecedent. Since chicken thief and he are singular, the corrected sentence follows the rule.

Suppose there were two (or more) chicken thieves. Then the following sentence would be correct:

If the chicken thieves are caught, they will go to jail.

The plural pronoun they refers the to the plural antecedent chicken thieves. The rule states that a plural pronoun must refer to a plural antecedent.  Since chicken thieves and they are plural, the sentence in question follows the rule.

Some readers may recall that the American Dialect Society named the singular pronoun “they” to be the 2015 Word of the Year. Others may agree with the article by Jen Dole that declares that the singular “they” must be stopped. For the record, I’m siding with Jen, who states:

I’m not ranting against use of they as a preferred gender pronoun, but instead, in (the more frequent) cases in which it’s simply the easy way out, and, I think, indicative of sloppy writing.

Of course, fans of Jane Austen may call attention to her  frequent use of the singular “they”/”their”/”them”/”themselves” construction. For readers looking for authoritative guidance, Nicholae Cline, a librarian at Indiana University, wrote an article that outlines the positions of various academic style guides.

Until next time,

Write something you love! — Joanne

Grammar Police BadgeFaulty pronoun references plague the manuscripts of many writers. The wise writer makes certain that each pronoun he writes refers clearly to one noun, known as the antecedent. The antecedent of a pronoun cannot be an adjective, a possessive noun, a clause, or a phrase.

If a pronoun references more than one antecedent, the sentence should be reworded to eliminate confusion. Another option is to eliminate the pronoun.

Error: Pronoun References Multiple Antecedents


When Bobby saw the clown, he screamed.

In the sentence above, it is not clear who screamed. Did Bobby scream? Did the clown scream?  The reader has to guess.

Example corrected:

Bobby screamed when he saw the clown.

In the reworded sentence, Bobby is clearly the antecedent of he. The vague pronoun reference is eliminated.

Example corrected (alternative):

When Bobby saw the clown, Bobby screamed.

In the example above, the pronoun he is eliminated and replaced with Bobby.

Error: No Antecedent for a Pronoun

Another common writing error occurs when there is no antecedent for a pronoun.


Mary called the hot line, but they did not answer.

In the example above, they has no noun antecedent to which it can refer. The solution to this problem is to change the pronoun without an antecedent into a noun.

Example corrected:

Mary called the hot line, but the operator did not answer.

In the example above, they is replaced by the operator.

Error: Pronoun References a Clause

Sometimes writers erroneously use a pronoun to refer to a group of words instead of one clear noun antecedent.


She did not lock the door, which was very irresponsible.

The pronoun which in the example above has no clear antecedent.  A pronoun must always refer to a single, unmistakable antecedent. A pronoun should not be used to refer to an entire clause.

Example corrected:

She did not lock the door. Her behavior was very irresponsible.

The rewritten sentence above makes the meaning clear.

Error: Pronoun References an Entire Sentence

In the example below, a pronoun is used to refer to an entire sentence instead of a single noun antecedent.


Jill phoned David last night to criticize his driving. This made David very angry.

In the example above, “this” is a vague pronoun.

Example corrected:

Jill phoned David last night to criticize his driving. Jill’s criticism made David very angry.

Error: Pronoun References a Possessive Noun

Some writers like to use a possessive noun as the antecedent for a pronoun; however, a possessive noun functions as an adjective.


In White’s novel Charlotte’s Web, he tells the story of a pig’s friendship with a spider.

The pronoun reference in the sentence above is faulty, because the possessive noun White’s can not function as the antecedent of he.

Example corrected:

In his novel Charlotte’s Web, White tells the story of a pig’s friendship with a spider.

Error: Hidden Antecedent

An antecedent is hidden if it serves as an adjective instead of a noun.


When she removed the candy’s wrapper, it turned out to be chocolate.

In the example above, it should refer to the candy, not the wrapper; however, in the sentence above, candy’s functions as an adjective.

Example corrected:

When she unwrapped the candy, it turned out to be chocolate.

Occasional vague pronoun references plague even the best writers. Be careful. Remember that wise writers use beta readers and editors.

Until next time,

Write something you love! — Joanne

flowery proseOverwriting is such a common problem that I decided to devote today’s blog post to what it is and how to recognize and correct it.

What is overwriting?

According to Richard Nordquist, overwriting is: “a wordy writing style characterized by excessive detail, needless repetition, overwrought figures of speech, and/or convoluted sentence structures.”

Purple prose is a more derogatory term used to describe overwriting in its most extreme form. Such prose is seen most often in the work of newer writers trying too hard to make an impression. Discerning readers find this style irritating. Fortunately, there are questions writers can ask that, when answered in the affirmative, signal overwriting and/or purple prose.

Is it likely that the person reading the passage will have to pull out a dictionary?

A skillful writer introduces less common words in a way that readers can figure out the meaning from the context. Readers like learning new words, but the wise writer doesn’t bombard readers with too many unfamiliar words at once.


She suffered from hyperperistalsis of the gastric mucosa.

The previous sentence might be suitable for a medical journal, but in fiction, use common words.

Example rewritten:

She had an upset stomach.

Does a phrase draw attention to itself and not what’s happening in the story?

In carelessly written love scenes, the euphemisms chosen to describe body parts often cause laughter. For example, check out “Purple Prose and Bad Sex” by Liz Fredericks, and read the part about the manly acorns and wiry thatch. Enough said.

Could a phrase be shortened without losing any meaning?


Sue sat on the bed in the bedroom.

Beds are usually in the bedroom. Don’t state the obvious.

Example rewritten:

Sue sat on the bed.

Does the writing sound too old-fashioned or formal?


She accepted the dinner invitation with much gratification.

Opt for clarity.

Example rewritten:

She smiled and accepted the dinner invitation.

Could the writing be described as flowery?

The classic example of this is the first sentence of Edward George Bulwer-Lytton’s Paul Clifford:

“It was a dark and stormy night; the rain fell in torrents—except at occasional intervals, when it was checked by a violent gust of wind which swept up the streets (for it is in London that our scene lies), rattling along the housetops, and fiercely agitating the scanty flame of the lamps that struggled against the darkness.”

A writing contest was inspired by this long sentence. Writers deliberately compose bad sentences that begin imaginary novels. Save wordy sentences for the contest.

Does the writing contain redundant words or phrases?


For any constituents endowed with even half a brain, this perpetual blather amounts to nothing more than mendacious prevarication.

In addition to other issues with the previous sentence, the phrase “mendacious prevarication” is redundant.

Example rewritten:

Everyone knows that politicians lie.

Does the dialogue contain redundancies?


“You are so mean!” Jenna shouted. “I’ve never met anyone as nasty as you before. You are nothing but a bully. I don’t know how you can live with yourself.”

Each line after the first in the example above takes something away from the preceding line. Pick the best way to convey the character’s thoughts.

Example rewritten:

“I don’t know how you can live with yourself!” Jenna stomped out of the room.

To have another character repeat what Jenna said in a different scene would be equally wrong. The readers already know what was said, and they don’t want to read the same thing twice.


“You told Misty that you didn’t know how she could live with herself?” Jill asked.

Example rewritten:

“I heard what happened with Misty.” Jill shook her head.

Are adverbs used inappropriately?


She pouted sadly when she learned of her grade on the math test.

Readers will assume that most people are unhappy if they’re pouting.

Example rewritten:

She pouted when she learned of her grade on the math test.

As a rule, minimize the use of adverbs.

Are multiple adjectives used when one would do?


Sue’s long, lovely, flaxen hair cascaded past her shapely, round, heaving breasts.

This is excessive, and the language isn’t tasteful.

Example rewritten:

Sue’s flaxen hair cascaded past her shapely bodice.

Are a character’s actions described in too much detail?


Lisa fumbled with her keys and unlocked the door. She turned the knob slowly and walked inside. Her fingers slid up the wall until she found the light switch, and then she turned on the light. She remembered a piece of chocolate cake that she’d put in the refrigerator and bolted to the kitchen.

Such detailed descriptions are tedious to read. When writing a thriller, an author might describe a character’s actions in detail before something exciting happens, but the reader will feel let down if nothing significant takes place after such a big build-up.

Example rewritten:

Lisa hurried inside and bolted to the kitchen. She opened the refrigerator door and spotted a lone slice of chocolate cake. Yummy!

The revised example provides only the necessary information.

Are distracting dialogue tags used?

Most of the time, use “said” (or “asked”). On rare occasions, a different dialogue tag might work, but it should never draw attention to itself in a way that removes the focus from the dialogue. Think of using dialogue tags the way a chef uses cayenne pepper.


“I can’t believe you painted the walls purple,” Kelly expostulated.

In this example, the word “expostulated” draws attention to itself.

Example rewritten:

“I can’t believe you painted the walls purple.” Kelly rolled her eyes and walked out of the room.

In the revision, the emphasis remains on the action in the story, rather than the unusual word.

Does the writing lack clarity?


She cast her oceanic eyes downward to gaze upon the enchanting denizens of the deep as they flitted about the aqueous realm.

Writers who try too hard, in a misguided attempt to sound literary, often confuse readers. Use plain English.

Example rewritten:

Her eyes widened as she looked down at the irresistible fish swimming in the pond.

The revised version is clear and easy to understand.

Are similes and metaphors used inappropriately?

Clement C. Moore makes extensive use of similes and metaphors in his Christmas poem, “A Visit From St. Nicholas,” but most of the time, similes and metaphors should be used sparingly. Avoid clichés. Click here for some examples of bad similes and metaphors from student essays. For some excellent examples of similes and metaphors, see Pablo Neruda’s “Sonnet XI.”

Is the dialogue so wordy or filled with backstory that it sounds unnatural?


“As you know, Kelly,” Erin said, “Mrs. Smith found a baby boy on her doorstep many years ago and adopted him as her own. Do you remember when you told me about it? You said that he had a very rare blood type.”

The snippet above is an example of reader feeder dialogue. The characters relay information they both already know for the benefit of the reader. In natural dialogue, when both characters know something, they reveal less.

Example rewritten:

“I hope Mrs. Smith can find a blood donor for her son,” Erin said.

Are descriptions excessive?


The candy, red and white in color and round in shape, smelled very much like peppermint. Wrapped in a clear wrapper, each piece was about an inch in diameter and had the hardness of a candy cane. About fifty pieces of candy filled the sparkling crystal bowl. A sign above the bowl said “one per person,” but Katy slipped two pieces into the pocket of her ragged wool coat.

Lengthy descriptions are tedious to read. Give the reader only the pertinent details.

Example rewritten:

The ball-shaped red and white candy in the crystal bowl smelled like peppermint. A sign above the bowl said “one per person,” but Katy slipped two pieces into the pocket of her ragged wool coat.

Are there any long lists of items?


She wore a warm winter coat, boots, hat, earmuffs, scarf, gloves, long underwear, and wool socks.

Readers tend to skim over long lists of items, and in most cases, it’s best to summarize.

Example rewritten:

She wore a European goose down jacket complete with accessories suitable for an Arctic snowstorm.

Does the writing contain unnecessary clutter?

Some writers pad their writing with unneeded words to make their word counts higher.


Due to the fact that she overslept, she missed the bus.

Example rewritten:

Because she overslept, she missed the bus.

In the revised version, a single word replaces five words. Not everyone wants to adapt Hemingway’s writing style, but writers should refrain from deliberately padding phrases.

Many of the examples above have more than one problem. Even the best writers make some of the errors described above. That’s why good writers use editors.

Until next time,

Write something you love! — Joanne